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Friday, January 23, 2015

Nigeria and Coups

Here's a really good perspective on Nigerian political context by a good friend regarding recent events there in relation to historical trends. The topic of coups is an interesting one, especially throughout the African continent. There seemed to be a flurry of coups in the early 1990s, but they may have fallen out of vogue until recently. Consider what is going on in Yemen and consider Pakistan's checkered transfer of power in the past few decades as case examples. 

Read Shawn Russell's piece to gain a better appreciation of Nigeria's present day context related to power. Context will continue to be the theme this year on Diplomatic Discourse as I introduce recommended readings to understand international affairs in their proper context.

Of note, I slightly disagree with Shawn's assessment and comparison of Nigeria to Mali. He is much more the expert on these matters, but I will point out that Nigeria and Mali are not similar case comparisons. Nigeria's resource curse, as Paul Collier would suggest, make her more prone to rent-seeking corruption, which, in my estimation would be the primary driver of political conflict motivating a coup. I don't think that is the case in Mali. I have to wonder if Mali's case has more to do with control of ethnic historiographies.  Nevertheless, Shawn's essay is an important piece.
Beware a Nigerian Coup d’Etat

Thursday, December 18, 2014

Context is Key



After yet another (rather lengthy) reprieve, I'm back. I think I left off talking about a comparison of the Somali and Afghan constitutions. Well, that discussion may get tabled, while we adjust the focus to a broader scope to include the larger matter of the so-called Arab uprisings, or seasonally unchanging "Arab Spring."

Without a doubt, what has been unfolding throughout the Middle East and to an even greater extent, the oft-referred Muslim world, has been significant.  However, to what extent are the events a function of civilization clashes, western influences, the war in Iraq, or some other external geopolitical force? One could easily get a narrow view of the various uprising individually and collectively throughout the region when one views them through a Western lens focusing on the last ten years or less. What is taking place has roots many decades old. Moreover, what is taking place may be largely related to internal adjustments to economic and cultural opportunity through structural reformations of rule.

Over the coming weeks and months, I am going to highlight some reading recommendations that will provide more background, more history, more substance to help frame a better sense of the context in which today's global challenges are taking place. Marwan Muasher's The Second Arab Awakening:And the Battle for Pluralism is the first such book that I recommend to begin re-framing one's thoughts and perspectives about what has been happening in the Arab world for the past few years. He asks the question, "is the Arab world moving toward democracy?"[1] It’s a good question, but the answer is neither simple nor clear. This is where context is key. Muasher makes the following observation related to the way many are mistakenly viewing today's events:
one's answer depends on the prism one uses... a three-year window is probably no the best prism through which to  view the recent developments in the Arab world. The question over the long term is whether the present change, however uncertain and difficult, will lead to democratic societies. After all, the first "awakening" of the Arab world succeeded in getting rid of foreign autocratic rule, but if failed to produce pluralistic governments. Why should we expect the second awakening to do so? Can we detect signs that indicate whether countries of the Arab world are moving toward democracy and pluralism or away from them? Despite the despair and cynicism that has seeped into thinking about the Arab uprisings so far, the developments are not all negative.[2]

Jordan's former foreign minister makes the case that an intellectual awakening at the turn of the twentieth century failed to materialize into positive structural changes to governance. Instead authoritarianism filled various voids where popular control was needed. Unfortunately, those authoritarian models based on degrees of ethnic, religious, and secular principles have done more to exclude majorities from the same opportunities retained by ruling elites.

He emphasizes the concept of pluralism as a key ingredient for tolerance of ideas and inclusion in democratic governance. He also emphasizes that today's changes will rely largely on "third forces" namely a new generation of idealists who are committed to finding peaceful means to reform political structures and processes.[3] A key takeaway from Muasher interpretation of this second Arab awakening is that it has only begun. Therefore, it is too early to tell what is really transpiring and how this story will actually unfold.

As we observe the events taking place in the Middle East and throughout the rest of the Muslim world, we must place today’s situation into a much broader context of political struggle and ideological reformation. Consider Marwan Muasher’s brief analysis of this second wave of new generations demanding a pluralistic polity. Then ask this question: what happened with the first awakening?


[1] Muasher p. 78
[2] Muasher pp. 78-79
[3] Muasher pp. 163-168

Friday, June 27, 2014

Institute of Land Warfare Publication

The good folks at the Institute of Land Warfare recently published an adaptation of my monograph, Special Operations Forces in Unlit Spaces: Understanding the World's Dark Spots in the Context of SOF Operational Planning, as part of their Land Warfare Paper series. Working with them was a pleasure, and I appreciate their attention to editing detail. Here is a link to the publication: http://www.ausa.org/publications/ilw/DigitalPublications/Documents/lwp101/index.html

Thursday, June 5, 2014

Gone but not Forgotten

I've been away for a spell, but I have not forgotten about this forum. I'll be returning to it very soon. There is definitely a lot to talk about in the world, particularly regarding many out-of-context misinterpretations of recent foreign policy approaches the United States has taken. The unfortunate bi-product of multiple 24-hour news outlets is that the level of analysis pertaining to current events fails to account for the current context in comparison to similar situations in context. Therefore, we will attempt to dig a little deeper than one or two news cycles with some recent events and look at their significance in the context of geopolitical norms and international theories.

Wednesday, November 20, 2013

Juxtaposing Drone Ethics with Nazi War Trials: A Review of Eichmann in Jerusalem

My previous essay regarding Hannah Arendt's book, Eichmann in Jerusalem, is now published through the good folks at e-International Relations. Here is the link the revised essay. The original is still posted in the archives, but I appreciate the efforts they did to clean it up. The version on e-IR is a little tighter and it juxtaposes today's argument related to the ethics of drone prosecution of terrorists with trials of Nazi war criminals. Check it out:

http://www.e-ir.info/2013/11/14/review-eichmann-in-jerusalem/

Tuesday, November 19, 2013

Pakistan's New Generation of Terrorists - Council on Foreign Relations

To understand the history of Afghanistan, one must account for Afghanistan's neighbor - Pakistan. Similarly, to understand the nature of the Taliban and other threat groups that have arisen, one must understand the interplay between Afghanistan and Pakistan to include their surrounding border states, such as India. The Council on Foreign Relations has a nice backgrounder on these threat groups.

Pakistan's New Generation of Terrorists - Council on Foreign Relations

Friday, November 8, 2013

1914 and the First World War

In the coming year there will be many books published about the first World War. In many ways I think people think they have forgotten that war; however, in many ways I think people don't realize how much they have not forgotten that war since it shaped so many aspects of international relations today. One new book I'm anxious to get ahold of is Margaret MacMillan's The War That Ended Peace: The Road to 1914. The title reminds me of Barbara Tuchman's Pulitzer Prize-Winner, The Guns of August.

The Brookings Institute, which has been doing a really neat essay series, will feature an interactive essay in December by Margaret MacMillan. Here is an interesting discussion with her regarding the early 1900s and how that period shaped today's international politics.

View more details on Brookings.edu
.

Wednesday, October 30, 2013

Revisiting Defense Strategies: The Applicability of Melvin Laird’s Strategy for Peace

Here it is. Check out the Small Wars Journal posting of my essay from 2011. It's a revised version of the original, Melvin Laird's Strategy for Peace: a 2011 Analysis. Students at the Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth have found the essay useful for some of the coursework. I hope this version will add to their academic understanding of an interesting period in our defense history. Thanks, as always to the the folks at Small Wars and thanks for keeping a great journal defense affairs. Enjoy.

Revisiting Defense Strategies: The Applicability of Melvin Laird’s Strategy for Peace

Monday, October 14, 2013

Today's Hot Topics, Yesterday's Conversations


Discussions of the world's events today sometimes seems so dire and trapped in a woeful present. Reading headlines and hearing the talking heads and even colleagues discuss current events, one might think today's trials are entirely new and wonder if this world will survive. Well, a quick glance at a series of headlines in history gives me reason to rethink that our world is progressing forward rather than backward. The New York Times has a fascinating interactive of headlines from the International Herald Tribune. Take a trip back to the late 1800s or the mid 1920s or the tumultuous 1950s and see that many of the same trials we worry about today were being worried about then: civil unrest, defense spending, rising powers, existential threats, the collapse of a moral society, etc. The front pages themselves are interesting, but the stories behind the fold reveal the conversations that took place in times we forget.

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2013/10/14/business/media/turning-the-page.html?smid=pl-share

Wednesday, October 9, 2013

Education in America - Championing Competition or Cause for Concern


Recent reports are again sounding the alarm for the decline of American education. The LA Times highlights that American adults have low (and declining) reading proficiency. The New York Post warns that US Adults are dumber than the average human! But are they, really? How conclusive are the OECD survey results and what do their trends really mean? Surveys are terribly complicated measures of many factors. The interesting thing about them is that they are hard to draw definitive conclusions. But people attempt to because the numbers in and of themselves can appear illuminating. However, correlation does not necessarily explain causation, nor does it explain relative geopolitical outcomes, i.e. global power parity. They do offer some policy insights to be competitive. Hence, the U.S. has had a history of reforming its education system to be competitive. In terms of higher education, the United States remains the dominant world leader in research institutions by a wide margin, nearly three times the rate compared to the next dominant group – Europe. Thus, I tend to be more skeptical and less cynical about the latest round of figures from a table in a survey depicting the worrisome status of American education. Those sounding bells have been ringing since at least the turn of the 20th century.

Here are a few alternatives to further understand the complex nature of education in America and education globally. In context the surveys themselves warn against creating specific policies to address perceived deficiencies, instead offering general observations for broader strategic education initiatives. In terms of meaning, their underlying importance is hard to determine. They may offer insight into the degree of competitiveness a country takes and in what manner, such as congressional initiatives to boost STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) competitiveness. For more understanding of the nature of global education consider the following:

PISA analysis

http://www.oecd.org/edu/school/programmeforinternationalstudentassessmentpisa/pisa2006results.htm

See also 2009 results from the same OECD program.

Lessons from PISA

http://www.oecd.org/fr/edu/scolaire/programmeinternationalpourlesuividesacquisdeselevespisa/strongperformersandsuccessfulreformersineducationlessonsfrompisafortheunitedstates.htm

Interpreting survey results - apples to apples comparison?

http://educationnext.org/are-u-s-students-ready-to-compete/

Interesting comparison of the American hegemony of higher education

http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/world-university-rankings/2013-14/world-ranking

Global education trends

http://129.194.160.51/webdav/site/developpement/shared/developpement/cours/E759/Altbach,%20Reisberg,%20Rumbley%20Tracking%20an%20Academic%20Revolution,%20UNESCO%202009.pdf

A bit of history. These education data statistics and their confusing meaning are nothing new. The contrast between turn of the century education reform and present day reform are startlingly similar, to include the analysis of particulars that distort general statistical averages, such as socio-economic factors related to reading. Compare the following introduction chapter to the Education Next.org paper and PISA survey analysis.

http://archive.org/details/monographsonedu01butlgoog

See also how education reform has been a point of domestic policy for a long time (1st chapter)

http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=web&cd=4&cad=rja&ved=0CEkQFjAD&url=http%3A%2F%2Fbooks.google.com%2Fbooks%2Fabout%2FThe_Politics_of_School_Reform_1870_1940.html%3Fid%3DkiPIf6mUoi4C&ei=KNZVUq3gMsnW2gWmuYCwBw&usg=AFQjCNF4zQnB79OTxGp0TLmrGrcGSSvG7A&sig2=rdOch95yV1IwOQHob772bg&bvm=bv.53760139,d.b2I

Congressional STEM initiative

http://www.jec.senate.gov/public/index.cfm?a=Files.Serve&File_id=6aaa7e1f-9586-47be-82e7-326f47658320